The 12 Disciples
Synopsis of Bible Study 04/21/10
Delivered by Bishop Walker III
The apostles were the foundation of the Church. The apostles were sent out to establish churches. The apostles were called Disciples while they were working and being trained by God, but they became Apostles after they were sent to do the work that they were trained do. They were to start churches.
Revelation 21:14 says 14And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. – The names of the 12 apostles are entrenched in walls of the New Jerusalem.
The 12 Disciples were 12 Jewish men who followed Jesus throughout his 3 yr ministry on earth.
11 of the 12 Disciples were from Galilee, except for one which was from Judea. This one from Judea was named Judas.
Some of the Disciples were married and some were not. Some sample scriptures are: Mark 1:29-31:29And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. 30But Simon’s wife’s mother lay sick of a fever, and anon they tell him of her. 31And he came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them. 1 Corinthians 9:3-6 says 3Mine answer to them that do examine me is this, 4Have we not power to eat and to drink? 5Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, as well as other apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas? 6Or I only and Barnabas, have not we power to forbear working?
The 12 Disciples by name
- Bartholomew (Nathanael)
- James (son of Zebedee)
- James (the lesser or younger)
- John (the son of Thunder, the Revelation)
- Thaddeus (Jude)
- Peter (Cephas, Rock, Simon)
- Thomas (Doubting Thomas) He was a born a twin.
About the Disciples
First we will introduce you to a term called martyrdom. These were people who died for the cause of Jesus. All of the Disciples/Apostles were martyred in one way or another.
- He was a fisherman by occupation
- He was the brother of Peter and the son of Jonahs.
- He lived in Capernaum.
- He was a disciple of John the Baptist originally. (Mark 1:1 -18).
- He brought Peter to Jesus
- He was condemned to die on the cross.
- Andrew felt so unworthy to be crucified in the same fashion as Jesus, he requested to be crucified with an X-shaped cross.
- His Symbol: Two crossed fish in the shape of an X or the X shape
- Personality trait: Enthusiastic about Christ, Inquisitive, resourceful
- Life lesson: He felt that we should go out and eagerly share the good news about Jesus Christ
- Occupation was uncertain.
- He was the son of Talmai.
- Lived in Cannon Galilee.
- We think he was a Romanian Missionary.
- Many scholars think he came from royal blood. His name means son of Talmai. 2 Samuel 3:3 3And his second, Chileab, of Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite; and the third, Absalom the son of Maacah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; – Talmai was the king of Geshur whose daughter was Maacah which was the wife of David the Mother of Absalom.
- Nathanael was really Bartholomew’s first name. ( John 1:47 – Jesus referred to him as Nathanael)
- He died in India where he preached. He died by being fillet alive with knives.
- His symbol: 3 parallel knives.
- Personality traits: Skeptic, honest, and faithful. John 1:49: 49Nathanael answered and saith unto him, Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel.
- Life’s Lesson: Believers are called to test all things scripture and remain true to its principle.
- His Occupation is a fisherman with his father and brother. Matthew 4:18-22 says 18And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. 19And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. 20And they straightway left their nets, and followed him. 21And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. 22And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him.
- He lived in Capernaum.
- He preached in Judea and Jerusalem. In AD44, he was beheaded by Herod. This task was done in public. Acts 12:1-2: 1Now about that time Herod the king stretched forth his hands to vex certain of the church. 2And he killed James the brother of John with the sword.
- He was the first of the 12 Disciples to die.
- His symbol: 3 shells (sign of his pilgrimage by the sea).
- Personality Trait: Vengeful and fiery, selfish, and conceited. He was committed to Christ and courageous to the end. Acts 12:2: 2And he killed James the brother of John with the sword.
- Also part of Jesus’ inner circle (consisting of Peter, James, and John)
- Life’s Lesson: Stand firm in the face of persecution.
- Uncertain about his occupation.
- Brother of Jude.
- This is the James that wrote the Apostle of James.
- Strong character and committed.
- This James died a horrible death. This James died by being sawed alive into pieces.
- His symbol: A saw.
- Personality Traits: Strong character, Committed.
- Life’s Lesson: He believed that all followers of Jesus can accomplish the work of God without being in the limelight.
- He was the son of Zebedee.
- Brother of James the Great.
- He was known as the beloved disciple.
- Occupation: Fisherman
- He was part of Jesus’ inner circle.
- He wrote the gospel of John as well as 1, 2, & 3 John. He also wrote Revelation.
- Asia Minor is where he preached. He was exiled to the aisle. Patmos. He was sent there to die a slow and painful death in exile.
- He wrote what he saw in a vision after being led by the spirit of the Lord (found in the book of Revelations)
- He was at the cross with Jesus. ‘
- He died a natural death. There was an attempt to poison him though.
- His Symbol: A snake around a cup is his symbol.
- Personality traits: He was vengeful, fiery, judgmental, selfish, bold, loving, and compassionate after the Pentecost. Acts 4:13. 1 John 4.
- He was the treasurer. John 12:5-06: 5Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor? 6This he said, not that he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and had the bag, and bare what was put therein.
- Son of Simon. He lived in Judah.
- He betrayed Jesus for 30 pieces of silver and hanged himself after that. Judas became the traitor.
- He is hard to understand. We wonder if his betrayal was preordained by God or was Judas a demoniac agent. As a demonic agent, we wonder about the suicide? Can one repent from that? As being preordained by God, did God allow this just to execute the plan.
- Was a violent Jewish Nationalist. He followed Jesus in hopes of promoting his own dreams. He used his position as treasurer often to negotiate.
- His symbol: A hangman’s noose or money purse with silver coins falling out.
- Personality Trait: Greedy, deceitful, treacherous, and remorseful.
- Life’s lesson: He believed that not all who claim to follow Jesus are faithful to him and his foals.
- He was the brother of James the younger.
- We know very little about him.
- He lived in Galilee. Assyria and Persia is where he preached.
- He died in Persia.
- Jerome called him Trinomious. This means a man with 3 names. Mark 3:18:18And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Canaanite,- Here he is called Thaddaeus. Matthew 10:3: 3Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; – Here is called Lebbaeus. Luke 6:16: 16And Judas the brother of James, and Judas Iscariot, which also was the traitor. – Here he is called Judas.
- He was characterized as a nationalist.
- Asked Jesus how he would manifest to the disciples and not the world. He made himself kno n as king rather than servant. – John 14:22-23:22Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? 23Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.
- Jude was known for manifesting gifts of healing.
- He died at Ararat-He died by arrows.
- His symbol: Ship, because he was a missionary thought to be a fisherman.
- Personality Traits: Inquisitive, Confused
- Life’s Lessons: Jesus will reveal truths to those who follow him
- He was a Tax collector in Galilee. Matt 9:9
- Lived in Capernaum.
- He wrote the book of Matthew.
- He died in Ethiopia
- Jews hated tax collectors.
- He was the first one to bring them the gospel in the Hebrew language so that they could understand it.
- His symbol: 3 money bags (this was to remind us Matthew was a tax collector before being called to be a Disciple)
- We don’t know how he died. We know he died and was martyred, but we don’t know how. They think he might have been cut open and burned at the stake, but we are not sure.
- Personality Trait: Hospitable.
- Life’s Lesson: Jesus Christ is for everyone even sinners and outcasts.
- He was as fisherman
- He was the son of Jonahs from Capernaum.
- He did evangelistic work among the Jews. He was crucified upside down. He asked to be turned upside down, because he didn’t think he was worthy to be crucified in the same manner as his savior. He was part of inner circle.
- It is believed that he wrote 1 & 2 Peter.
- Jesus called him Simon. He was like the chairman of the disciples.
- His symbol: An upside down Cross. Other symbols for Peter were 2 crossed keys representing him being given the keys to the kingdom. In fact the whole apostolic succession belief is based on Peter. If you look at a Pope’s garment, there is two keys crossed sown on it.
- Peter was the switch blade carrying disciple.
- Personality traits: Impulsive yet cowardly, hot tempered yet tenderhearted, insightful yet dense.
- He was courageous and solid after the Pentecost Experience.
- Life’s Lesson: He believed that God can forgive our sins and strengthen the faith of those who love him.
- He preached in Perugia. .He died a martyr in a place called Hierapolis.
- He came from humble beginnings.
- He was a fisherman.
- The first 3 gospels record his name. In the gospel of John, Phillip becomes a living personality.
- Scholars wonder if he was the same Phillip that was ordained as a deacon. Phillip was the one that read to the Enoch and showed him away.
- He was hung and while doing so, he asked them not to wrap him up in linen and perfumes which was their form of embalming. He said he is not worthy of his body being treated the same way as Jesus’ body (his savior) was.
- His Symbol: Basket of bread loaves, because he was part of the feeding the multitude.
- Personality Traits: Practical, helpful, literal and confused. John 14:8
- He was called a Canaanite.
- He lived in Galilee.
- He died of some form of crucifixion, but not sure what.
- He was a nationalist very much into the law.
- He hated people that compromised with Rome.
- He had lots of faith. He was willing to share with the other disciples.
- His symbol: Fish laying on bible indicating that he was a fisherman who became a fisherman of men as a preacher.
- Personality Trait: Patriotic, loyal. Mark 3:18
- Life’s Lessons: He believed we should sacrifice politics to follow Jesus.
- He was born a twin.
- He was also known as Didymus. John 20:24
- Hey labored in Persia and India.
- He died in a place called Mount Saint Thomas in India.
- His Hebrew name was Thomas and his Greek name was Didymus.
- Sometimes they called him Judas.
- This Thomas appeared at the raising of Lazarus from the dead.
- He was in upper room when Jesus appeared with the disciples. Thomas was the one that said he didn’t know the way. He is known as doubting Thomas. He was the one that said he was not going to believe that Christ had risen until he saw the nail prints in his hand.
- He died in India and with the spears.
- His Symbol: A group spears, stones and arrows
- Personality Trait: Inquisitive, doubtful, courageous, faithful.
Other interesting facts
What happened to Mark and Luke? Why weren’t they mentioned? Mark was not a walking disciple of Jesus. He was actually a disciple of Peter. Luke of Antioch was physician and he became a disciple of the Apostle Paul. Luke served the Lord unmarried, without children, and filled with the Holy Ghost. He died at the age 84.
If you walk by our Antioch location, know that the colors represent the tribes of Israel. The tribes are engraved on plaques on the ground under the pillars. Inside the atrium of our Antioch location, the twelve disciples are listed on the ceiling.-+